March 2022 - ASG Eye Hospital | Best Eye Hospital in India


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Eye Cornea Surgery: Causes, Treatments, and Risks

The cornea acts as a lens to refract, or bend light and guides most of the light entering the eye. It is a thin transparent membrane; a clear layer of tissue that smoothly covers the eyeball. Doctors generally recommend eye cornea surgery when the vision is disrupted due to damage or thinning of the cornea to retrieve and restore vision, improve its appearance, and relieve pain. Eye specialists categorize cornea difficulties as sensitivity to light, blurry vision, distressful pain, and redness. Though we somehow neglect minimalistic eye-related problems and regard them as slightly insignificant, these could lead to terrible repercussions.


Cornea transplantation: Eye cornea treatment

As intimidating as it may sound, cornea transplantation or keratoplasty is merely an intricate term simply referring to eye cornea surgery. Cornea specialists carry out this efficacious procedure with diligence and absolute care. It replaces the affected portion of the cornea with a healthy donor and eventually restores vision, enhancing the appearance and reducing discomfort. If the vision is impaired to a substantial extent, your doctor shall treat the damaged part of the cornea or its underlying cause, with the optimal manner of surgery. Several conditions can lead to such procedures:
  • Keratoconus
  • Vision impairment disorder: Corneal Dystrophy
  • Inability to precisely focus light: Corneal Scarring
  • Swelling of Cornea: Corneal Edema
  • Critical injury or severe wound to the eye


Keratoconus: Cornea damage

Keratoconus is one such disease resulting in astigmatism or near-sightedness. Keratoconus alters the normal shape of the cornea and renders it protruding, like a cone. Astigmatism; gradually makes the cornea perceptively curvy, changing its form to a conical shape, differing from the normal ball-alike structure. Near-sightedness as the term indicates is the trouble of discerning things that are farther from a distance, you can only see objects or other figures which are nearer to you. A person experiencing these symptoms must consult an eye specialist immediately:

Cornea Damage, ASG Eye Hospital

  • Streaky lights
  • All things appearing blurry
  • Luminous lights surrounded with halos
  • Double vision
  • Seeing a ghost image with one eye, termed as monocular diplopia
When the damage is extensive the patient may need cornea transplantation.

Corneal Dystrophy: Painful irritation in the cornea

Affecting the front part of the eye, Corneal dystrophy is a genetic disease that usually runs in families. It may make the vision cloudy and blurry. A person diagnosed with symptoms such as painful eyes, glare, sensitivity to light, loss of corneal epithelium causing corneal abrasion or erosion may be suffering from corneal dystrophy. Watery or dry eyes, the sensation of something in the eye, or irritation and frequent feeling of eyelid sticking to the eye may also lead to corneal dystrophy. As a genetic disorder, doctors commonly suggest cornea treatment as a way to go about corneal dystrophy. If the condition is bad enough, the person might have to undergo eye cornea surgery, though the treatment depends on the type of corneal dystrophy.


Corneal Scarring: Emergence of scars in cornea

Being a resilient tissue, the cornea can typically heal from minor abrasions. Nonetheless, serious corneal damage may result in corneal scarring. Corneal scars can occur through burns, improper use of contact lenses, lacerations, or deep scratches. Symptoms may include:
  • Swelling of eyelids
  • Redness
  • Burning sensation
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Scratchy sensation of something in the eye
  • Pain in eyes
  • Blurry vision
In case these symptoms persist, you need to consult an ophthalmologist for the desired eye cornea treatment. The doctor may ask you, initially, of the recent eye injuries and medical history other than the symptoms. Thereafter, the ophthalmologist shall conduct an eye exam in which he will look for abrasions or irritating debris. The optimal treatment will be suggested to you then. Commonly, there are three ways to medicate corneal scarring:
  • Laser therapy
  • Corneal transplantation
  • Artificial cornea; a damaged portion is replaced with a combination of synthetic material    and the donor tissue


Corneal Edema

The swelling of the cornea due to the build-up of excess fluid is termed Corneal Edema. Speaking scientifically, the membrane called endothelium pumps out fluid from the cornea, when it becomes inactive, liquid accumulates and the cornea swells. It mostly occurs in women, as compared to men, after the age of 50. A condition called Fuch’s endothelial dystrophy causes this disorder. Things that could trigger this condition are:
  • Improper use of contact lenses
  • Eye surgery
  • Medications
  • Some medical conditions like herpes.

Cornea edema, ASG Eye Hospital

Eye cornea specialist will guide you to a course of eye cornea treatment if the symptoms may occur as:
  • Pain in the eye when encountering discomfort due to light
  • A scratchy feeling in the eye
  • Ache or tenderness while touching the eyes
  • Seeing halos around the lights
  • In severe cases, aching blisters might emerge
The ophthalmologist will look for scars or cloudiness around your eyes or may examine the eye with an ophthalmoscope for diagnosis. Moreover, the treatment might vary on the extent to which this disorder has caused the damage.
A severe injury or wound to the eye may also lead to cornea transplantation. Though, it is more likely to be treated by the degree of damage.

Types of corneal transplantation

The advances in corneal transplantation allow surgeons to replace a part or all of the cornea, depending upon the location of the damage. Today, eye specialists consider a less invasive approach, with lower risks and quicker recovery, therefore, a partial cornea transplant can have advantages. The transplant is performed under local anaesthetic (where the area to be treated is numbed and you’re awake) or general anaesthetic (where you’re sedated and rendered unconscious). The surgery is not a prolonged one, either you may leave the eye cornea hospital the same day or stay overnight.
Largely there are four types of Transplantation:
  • Penetrating keratoplasty is a procedure that involves replacing the entire cornea with a healthy donor cornea. This is the preferred technique when all layers of the cornea are opaque.
  •  Endothelial keratoplasty is to replace the inner layer of the cornea with a healthy inner layer of a donor cornea. This is used to treat patients with endothelial dystrophy such as Fuch’s Dystrophy.
  •  A procedure termed Keratoprosthesis involves replacing the entire cornea when a cornea is so severely damaged that it cannot be repaired with a natural donor cornea or when a previous donor cornea transplant is unsuccessful.
  •  Anterior lamellar keratoplasty is a technique to replace the outer layer of the cornea with a healthy outer layer of a donor cornea. This is used mostly in patients with keratoconus and scarring of the uppermost layers of the cornea.


Risks of eye cornea surgery

As with all kinds of surgery, there are few subsequent complications of cornea transplantation. Although, most cornea surgeries are successful and hardly lead to any threats. That being said, considering the complications may be useful to the eye specialists as well to the patient:
  • Cataract
  •  Bleeding in the eye
  • Detachment of the transplanted cornea
  • Inflammation in the eye
  •  Glaucoma
  •  Retinal detachment
  •  Incorrect vision requiring glasses or contact lenses
  •  Infection inside or on the surface of the eye


Cornea transplant rejection

Another possible complication is the rejection of the donated cornea. If your immune system recognizes that the tissue is foreign and creates an immune response that rejects the new cornea then this complication can occur between several months to several years following the surgery. Cornea transplant rejection is usually reversible, and if addressed within time, may not harm the functioning of the transplanted cornea.
The overall risk for complications differs based on numerous factors that may take in your age, medical history, other eye problems, and the basic reason for your cornea transplantation. Consult your eye specialists about your risks for cornea transplantation to avoid transplant rejection.

What to expect after the eye cornea surgery?

Even though this surgery is not a drawn-out procedure, you may need to follow the post-surgery instructions as prescribed by your doctor. In the case of experiencing symptoms such as sensitivity to light, redness or pain in the eyes, and depletion in vision, you may need to consult your ophthalmologist.
The major cause for corneal transplantation: Keratoconus
Keratoconus is an eye syndrome that is progressive and can’t be reversed. When diagnosed early in the early stages, C3R therapy helps in stabilising it, and in advanced stages, corneal transplantation techniques are helpful.
The treatment options vary on the advances of this syndrome:
  •  Contact lenses (RGP – Rigid Glass Permeable)
  •  Corneal Collagen Crosslinking (C3R/ CXL)
  •  Corneal Implants
  •  Corneal Transplants
More about Corneal Collagen Crosslinking (C3R/ CXL)
This minimally invasive process enhances the corneal strength by inducing crosslinking of collagen fibres. C3R helps in stabilising keratoconus in the early stage and prevents further progression of the disease and the need for corneal transplantation. 
Corneal Transplant is a widely misunderstood procedure due to the possible risks and outcomes. Cornea specialists describe it as relatively safe and the complications are minimal and treatable.


Dr.Shilpi GangDr. Shilpi Gang
MBBS (Gold Medalist), MD (AIIMS, NEW DELHI), Fellow of Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, Glasgow, U.K.


Dr. Shilpi Gang is the co-founder and CEO of ASG EYE HOSPITALS. ASG Eye Hospital has a network of 44 eye Hospitals across 33 cities of India.


What is cataract surgery ? How do doctors rectify it ? 

Cataract seems to be a horrifying term but doctors usually recommend it when a person is unable to see clearly. It is categorized as an age-related disorder of the eye. An eye specialist recommends cataract surgery when the lens of the eye becomes cloudy and a person’s vision becomes blurry. The eye lens is situated behind the iris & pupil. It functions to help you focus on the objects of varying distances away from the affected person.
The white cloudiness on the lens happens because of the clumping of proteins. It forms a white opaque film on the eye lens and prevents the light from passing through and reaching the retina. it is impossible that this blurry vision can be corrected through medication or eyeglasses. Don’t get frightened as science has done such an advancement that is the easiest surgery that takes around 10-15 minutes to complete and the process is also not painful.
During cataract eye surgery, the team of cataract eye specialist doctors replaces the damaged eye lens with an artificial lens or intraocular lens to successfully restore clear vision. 


Why does a cataract develop ?

There are several reasons for the development of cataracts: 
  • Age factor: people who are older than 60 years of age are likely to be at risk.
  • Harmful UV rays: overexposure to the UV rays can also affect the vision and develops into a cataract.
  • Drugs effectuated: prolonged usage of steroids or prescription drugs may lead to cataract.
  • Blood sugar level/ diabetes: People who have diabetes are more likely to develop a cataract.
  • Eye injury: an eye injury can also cause cataracts or complete vision loss.
Don’t delay and go for the cataract surgery treatment if you experience the following signs:
  • Blurry vision.
  • Impaired night vision.
  • Double vision.
  • The colors seem to be faded.
  • Easily affected to glare & bright lights.
  • Halation around lights.
  • Rapid need to change eyeglasses.
Cataract usually develops as a person gets older and they may get worse gradually if you avoid the treatment. A cataract is recommended when it noticeably affects the vision. It causes trouble while doing daily errands like reading, driving, seeing anything in bright light.

Things to remember after cataract surgery :


After surgery, a person will be happy to see that vision has started to improve than before within a matter of a few days. But if you initially feel that vision is still somewhat blurry or wavy, don’t panic. It is normal, as sometimes the eyes take time to heal and adjust to the new vision. A brownish or yellow-tinted cataract makes the vision fade and the colors muted. The colors will appear to be brighter when the person sees through the new lens after the surgery.

Points to be noted at the recovery stage :


  • Stay in touch with your doctor. Follow-up is of utmost importance. After a day or two after the surgery, the doctor calls for follow-up, visits them as per schedule.
  • Doubtful about surgery, if your eyes feel itchy after surgery? Oh, don’t be! It is normal to feel a few mild discomforts.
  • Avoid touching the eye.
  • This will be a topical eye surgery with no injection, No stitches and No pain.
  • No eye patch is required after the surgery.
  • Doctors usually prescribe eye drops and some medications to prevent infection, reduce inflammation & control eye pressure. Take them on time.
  • Scratchiness, sensations, dry eyes, or itchiness will go away. In the majority of cases, the healing process gets completed within one weeks. In case you feel any of the following symptoms, contact your doctor immediately:
  1. Vision loss.
  2. Continuous pain.
  3. Increased redness in the eye.
  4. Light flashes.
  5. Multiple floaters in the line of vision.


  • Doctors suggest the person wear post-operative sunglasses for some time. It protects your eyes from sunlight & other bright lights till the time the eye recovers. The doctor will also let you know when to stop wearing glasses after a proper eye examination.
  • Do not attempt to drive until and unless you have visited your doctor and he or she confirms that you are safe to drive.
  • Avoid heavy lifting and back-breaking activities.
  • Don’t involve in any kind of activity that might cause stress to the eye during the healing process.
  • Keep your eyes closed while taking shower.
  • Avoid swimming or hot tubs for at least 2 weeks.
  • Stay away from any activity that will expose your eye to dust, grime, or any other infectious contaminants. 
Want to know the cost of surgery? The average cost of cataract surgery in India is usually between Rs. 12,000 to Rs. 1,25,000. However, the prices may vary depending upon the lens opted.


Dr.Shilpi GangDr. Shilpi Gang
MBBS (Gold Medalist), MD (AIIMS, NEW DELHI), Fellow of Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, Glasgow, U.K.


Dr. Shilpi Gang is the co-founder and CEO of ASG EYE HOSPITALS. ASG Eye Hospital has a network of 44 eye Hospitals across 33 cities of India.




Many of us wear eyeglasses or contact lenses to see clearly or to correct our vision. But sometimes people fail to take care of our eyes. Like going off to bed with specs on, or mistakenly splashing water on the face while wearing the lens. In both cases, you are at harm. To not have such bad experiences, you can look out for a permanent solution to your visibility problem, i.e. Lasik Eye Surgery


What is Lasik Eye Surgery?

In simple terms, Lasik surgery is undertaken to correct several eyesight conditions. A normal person can see everything. But people with nearsightedness or farsightedness cannot see the outside world’s images very clearly. It happens because outside world images don’t fall exactly on the retina, which thereby causes a refractive error. The light rays of the outside world do not get focused on the retina causing blurred images.
In a broader outlook, the outer layer of the eye is the cornea, and people’s cornea shape can be changed which leads to vision issues that call for Lasik Eye Surgery Treatment.
This surgery reshapes the cornea depending upon the vision condition that this particular treatment aims to fix. It corrects vision issues like nearsightedness & farsightedness.
The surgery doesn’t require much time. It takes nearly around 15 minutes and people remain awake during the whole procedure of the surgery. It is not painful. Right before going under the procedure, the surgeon will put numbing eye drops in both eyes. But you might experience a little pressure during the surgery.

Know the procedure of the surgery..

  1. Firstly, a mechanical surgical tool named microkeratome or a femtosecond laser is used to make a thin & circular flap in the cornea. The Lasik Specialist then folds back this turned flap to approach the underlying cornea (or stroma).
  2. Secondly, to bring back the cornea (corneal stroma) in shape, an excimer laser is used. This highly modernized laser tool uses a cool UV light beam to remove microscopic amounts of tissue from the cornea. The process reshapes the cornea accurately and the light now perfectly reaches the retina thereby enhancing improved and clear vision.
  3. At last, the corneal flap is placed back in place, where it adheres to the corneal stroma without stitches. 

Things to keep in mind after surgery:


  • After the surgery, the doctor will give you a brief post-op eye exam. Once the doctor/ eye specialist confirms that the surgery was successful, he or she will be discharged & allowed to go home.
  • The person cannot self drive the car or any other vehicle to home after discharge. He or she must be driven by a family member or a friend. He/ She is not allowed to drive until the doctor says after a follow-up visit. During the follow-up meets, the doctor will discuss & confirm that the vision is within the legal standard for driving.
  • The doctor will call after a week of the surgery to have a look at the healing process. At that visit, they will determine whether more follow-up visits are required or not.
  • Refrain from doing any heavy exercise for the week after surgery, as it can disturb the healing process.
  • Avoid wearing eye makeup for a week. When you resume, use new products to avoid any kind of infection. Doctors prescribe eye drops & artificial tears that help to speed up the healing process, fight against bacteria & infection and combat the eye from drying. 

When can a person expect the results of Lasik Eye Surgery?

The person undergoing the eye surgery can immediately see the result. He or she begins to see things from a distance that they were not able to see before. While a person may feel a little irritation & haziness initially, it will be stabilized and day by day it gets improved after surgery. It is common for eyes to feel a little powdery or dusty or sensitive to light. 


Doctors always ask the patients to keep their eyes closed for a few hours. After at least 6-7 hours, patients feel comparably comfortable with their vision. In some cases, patients may feel comfortable the very next day of surgery. However, this depends on the intensity of the patient’s eyesight before the eye surgery. 

Every surgery has some risks involved. With this surgery, you may struggle with the Dry eyes which can be handled through lubricating eye drops. 

Know some benefits: 

  • Don’t have to wear eyeglasses and contact lenses
  • Can undertake activities like sports comfortably after surgery.
  • Having whole comfort & convenience of not wearing corrective eyewear


Dr.Shilpi GangDr. Shilpi Gang
MBBS (Gold Medalist), MD (AIIMS, NEW DELHI), Fellow of Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, Glasgow, U.K.


Dr. Shilpi Gang is the co-founder and CEO of ASG EYE HOSPITALS. ASG Eye Hospital has a network of 44 eye Hospitals across 33 cities of India.




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