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Eye Retinal Detachment is an emergency that occurs when the retina, a light-sensitive membrane situated at the back of the eye, separates from its normal position.
The lens of the eye focuses an image on the retina when light passes through it. The retina is a thin layer of tissue that receives images and sends them as electric signals through the optic nerve to the brain.
So, when the retina separates from its normal position it renders deprived of oxygen and nourishment. This may lead to Retinal Detachment surgery for treatment. As the retinal cells are cut off from the blood vessels that provide oxygen, the risk of partial or permanent vision loss increases. If it is not treated immediately, it may lead to severe consequences.

Symptoms of Retinal Detachment

Though there is no significant pain associated with this situation, various symptoms occur before or in the advanced stages:


  • Blurred vision
  • The sudden appearance of floaters or tiny specks or strings drifting through the field of vision
  • Partial vision loss that occurs as a curtain has pulled across your field of vision, with a shadowing effect
  • Photopsia: Sudden flashes of light in the eyes
  • Gradual reduction of side or peripheral vision
Symptoms occur rapidly and if not addressed or treated immediately, may lead to eye surgery for retinal detachment. The risk of vision loss also increases with time if the symptoms are overlooked.

Types or Causes of Retinal Detachment

Whether this condition is caused by a tear, scar tissue, or disease, the types differ with the state of the retina.
Majorly, there are three types of Retinal Detachment:
Rhegmatogenous: It is the most common type of retinal detachment caused by a hole or a tear in the retina, making the fluid slip through the opening and collect underneath the retina, consequently pulling the retina away from the underlying tissues. The regions where the retina detaches lose their supply of blood and cease to work, causing loss of vision.
Aging is the most common cause of rhegmatogenous detachment. Vitreous, a gel-like substance that fills the inside of the eye may change in consistency or render more liquid with age. Usually, this gel-like substance separates from the surface of the retina without any complications and this condition is termed posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). The common complication of this separation is a tear.
Vitreous may tug on the retina with sufficient force to create a retinal tear when it separates or peels off the retina. If immediate measures are not taken, the liquid vitreous can pass through the tear and settle behind the space of the retina, causing detachment.
Tractional: This type of retinal detachment is typically observed in people who have poorly controlled diabetes or people suffering from diabetes mellitus (which mainly affects the retinal vascular system).
In tractional retinal detachment, the scar tissue grows or contracts on the retina’s surface, causing the retina to pull away from the back of the eye.
The retinal vascular damage leads to scar tissue accumulation resulting in detachment of the retina.
Exudative: This type of retinal detachment is not caused by any tears or holes in the retina. In this, fluid accumulates beneath the retina. The main causes are:
  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • An inflammatory disorder that leads to the accumulation of fluid behind the retina
  • Injury or wound to the eye
  • Tumors
  • Cancer behind the retina

Are you at risk of retinal detachment?

It is usual for anyone to experience retinal detachment but a few factors can highly increase being at risk:
  • Anybody with a family history of retinal detachment
  • A severe injury or wound in the past
  • If someone has been through eye surgeries such as cataract surgery
  • Diagnosed with eye conditions or diseases
  • Aging (greater risk if the person is above the age of 50)
  • Extreme myopia (Not able to see objects situated farther from the eye)
  • Diagnosed previously with retinal detachment
Some eye-related conditions or diseases also put you at a higher risk:
  • Diabetic Retinopathy (a diabetic complication that affects the blood vessels in the retina)
  • Lattice degeneration (the thinning of the retina)
  • Retinoschisis (the separation of the retina into two layers)
  • Posterior vitreous detachment (gel-like material in the center of the eye pulls or separates away from the retina)

How is Retinal Detachment diagnosed?

This condition is diagnosed through an eye exam. The eye specialist will use dilated eye exam to check the retina. Initially, eye drops are put in the eyes. These drops dilate the pupils or widen them. The doctor will be able to get a close look after a few minutes.


The eye specialist or ophthalmologist may prescribe other tests after the dilated eye exam. These tests are non-invasive and painless. They help the doctors provide more detail and information for the further course of treatment. Some of the tests which are mostly recommended are:
Optical coherence tomography (OCT): Firstly, the pupils are dilated for this imaging. Secondly, the patient is required to sit in front of the OCT machine, where your head is placed on a support to stay still. Lastly, the machine scans your eye but does not touch it.
Eye (ocular) ultrasound: This test does not use drops for dilating the eye but the doctor may use drops that numb the eyes to diminish the discomfort. The patient is made to sit on a chair and rest the head on a support, so it stays still. The doctor will gently place the instrument in front of the eye to scan it. Thereafter, the patient is asked to close their eyes. The eye specialist puts gel on the eyelids. To scan the eyes with the instrument, the patient needs to move the eyes keeping them closed.

What is the treatment for retinal detachment?

In minor cases of retinal detachment or tears of the retina, a simple procedure in the eye specialist’s office may suffice. But, in most cases, surgery becomes a necessity to repair the detached retina.
Laser surgery (photocoagulation) and freezing (cryopexy) are the most usual treatment options for the tears in the retina.
Photocoagulation is performed with a laser in case there exists a hole or tear in the retina but the retina is still attached. The laser burns around the tear site and results in scarring, which in consequence affixes the retina to the back of the eye.
Cryopexy is a procedure that means freezing with intense cold. In this treatment, the doctor applies a freezing probe outside of the eye in the region over the retinal tear site and the eventual scarring will hold the retina in the normal place.

Eye Surgery for Retinal Detachment

In case, a larger part of the retina is detached, doctors usually recommend Retinal Detachment Surgery to move the retina back in place.
The three most typically prescribed surgeries are retinopexy, scleral buckling, and vitrectomy.


Pneumatic retinopexy

This procedure is performed to repair minor detachments. The doctor may perform it in the office itself. Firstly, the doctor uses medicine to numb the eyes to reduce or diminish discomfort. The steps thereafter are:
  • A small amount of fluid is extracted with the help of a tiny needle.
  • Formation of petite bubbles in the eye by injecting a small amount of air.
  • Lastly, the doctor waits for the retina to shift back into place and repairs any holes or tears with laser surgery or freezing.
The air bubble in the eye will cause no issues and disappear over time, but some precautions are suggested after the surgery to make sure the eye heals completely.
Few engagements like intense exercise, heavy lifting, or flying in an airplane should be avoided for minimal exertion of the body. The patient needs to keep following up with the doctor to make sure the eye is healing correctly.

Scleral bulking

Scleral bulking is performed in more severe cases of retinal detachment. The doctor will typically give the patients anesthesia for this surgery so they can sleep and do not feel any discomfort during the entire procedure. Next:
  • The doctor will place a small and flexible band around the sclera (white portion of the eye).
  • The band then pushes the sides of the eye and toward the retina so it will reattach.
  • The band remains permanently after the surgery.
  • Lastly, to repair any holes or tears, laser surgery or freezing might be provided.
The retinal detachment surgery is very simple and not painful, so the doctor may discharge the patient the same day. Although, due to the induced anesthesia, someone might have to drive the patient home.
Some precautions are necessary to make sure the eye heals properly:
  • Wearing an eye patch for at least a day after surgery.
  • Avoidance of heavy lifting or intense exercise.
  • Follow-ups with the eye specialist.


It is an eye surgery for retinal detachment used for larger tears and is performed usually in an outpatient surgery center. The patient will be under anesthesia to proceed through the following steps:
  • The doctor will make a small incision in the sclera of the eye.
  • A microscope is inserted to examine the interior of the eye.
  • Then, the doctor will remove abnormalities like scar tissue or vitreous.
  • A gas bubble will be injected simultaneously placing the retina back in its place.
  • Eventually, freezing or laser will be done to repair tears or holes.
The patient might feel some discomfort after the surgery and is suggested to avoid intense exercise.

Prevention from Retinal Detachment Surgery

There are no known ways to prevent retinal detachment condition or surgery but a person can take a few precautionary measures:
  • Getting eye dilation exams regularly
  • Wearing a protective eye shield while playing sports
  • Controlling levels of blood sugar
These conditions might worsen the normal functioning of the eye and may result in severe consequences. But, don’t worry if you have such conditions. At ASG Eye Hospitals, we take pride in providing the best solutions for eye care to people irrespective of their awareness, knowledge, and financial levels. The most optimal retinal detachment surgery at ASG encompasses state-of-the-art equipment and highly experienced doctors.


Diabetic retinopathy, the leading cause of blindness worldwide, occurs as a change in blood vessels of the retina as a result of diabetes. The retinal damage and impairment of vision lead to Diabetic retinopathy treatment. It is a condition that is caused by damage to the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina). It is mainly a diabetic complication and affects in two stages:
  • The early stage of the disease in which blood vessels swell and leak is called nonproliferative retinopathy. The macular edema or the swelling of the retina may result in mild vision loss.
  • The advanced stage in which abnormal new blood vessels grow on the surface of the retina is termed proliferative retinopathy. This may result in severe vision loss as these blood vessels may break and bleed into the vitreous (the clear watery gel that fills the eye).
While there are not many known ways to prevent diabetic retinopathy, you can reduce the risk of having it develop or progress. Maintaining the blood sugar levels slows the onset of retinopathy and may prevent it from getting worse. It also decreases the need for Laser Retinopathy treatment or other procedures in the severe stages.

What are the causes of Diabetic Retinopathy?

The leading cause of Diabetic Retinopathy is high levels of sugar in the blood that result in blockage of the tiny blood vessels which nourish the retina. Consequently, the eye attempts to grow new blood vessels but these don’t work properly and easily leak. The new blood vessels behave abnormally and eventually cause Diabetic Retinopathy.

Symptoms of Diabetic Retinopathy

You may not have any symptoms in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy and the vision may not change until the disease gets worse. But as the disease progresses you may observe:

Diabetic Retinopathy Symptoms

  • Floaters, spots, or strings in the visual field which move in the direction you look
  • Blurry vision
  • Fluctuating vision
  • Poor color vision & contrast
  • Difficulty in seeing at night
  • Blind spots in the field of vision
  • A strange dark or empty spot in the center of the vision
  • A sudden or total loss of vision
A person who is suffering from diabetes is at a higher risk of developing this disease. The risk increases with age and with other factors like smoking, high blood pressure, and pregnancy.

Are There Any Complications if Diabetic Retinopathy is Left Untreated?

Without proper treatment, this disease can lead to various complications.
A condition called vitreous hemorrhage might occur when the blood vessels bleed into the main jelly that fills the eye (vitreous). As the blood in the vitreous blocks light from entering the eye, it can result in vision loss. Although in mild cases the symptoms include floaters in the visual field.
If there’s no damage to the retina, bleeding in the vitreous may resolve itself.
In some cases, a severe complication called detached retina might occur. It is caused when the scar tissue pulls the retina from the back of the eye. The person may experience floating spots in the field of vision, flashes of light, and severe vision loss. If not treated, it may lead to total vision loss.

How is Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnosed?

An ophthalmologist can easily detect the signs of this disease. It is recommended that people who suffer from diabetes must have an eye examination at least once a year to prevent themselves from Diabetic Retinopathy Surgery. The ways of diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy are multiple:

Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnosis

Dilated Eye Exam

For the dilated eye exam, an eye doctor puts drops into the person’s eyes. This helps to dilate the pupils and allows the doctor to see the inside of the eye.
They then take photographs of the eye’s interior and look for the presence of:
  • Cataracts
  • Retinal detachment
  • Changes in the eye pressure
  • Abnormalities in the blood vessels or the retina
  • Scar tissue
You may feel minor discomfort due to the eye drops and the bright lights of the photographs.

Visual Acuity Test

It is an eye chart test that measures central vision ability at different distances.

Fluorescein Angiography

This test is conducted initially by dilating the pupils and then by injecting a dye called fluorescein into the vein of the person’s arm.
Further, pictures are taken as the dye circulates the eyes. To determine which blood vessels are leaking fluid or are blocked or broken down the doctor examines the flow of the dye. The dye, fluorescein, may leak through the retina or stain the blood vessels if these vessels are behaving abnormally.
This helps the doctor to go on with the proper course of treatment.
People may notice that they have yellowish skin or dark orange urine due to the existence of dye in the body.


This test is conducted to check the pressure (intraocular pressure, or IOP) inside the eye.

Optical Coherence Tomography

This test allows the doctors to look for cysts or swelling of the retina. OCT is a non-invasive imaging scan that helps provide high-resolution cross-sectional images of the retina to reveal its thickness.
It also aids in checking the effectiveness of the treatment as doctors perform it before and after treatment.
Though it is similar to ultrasound testing, it uses light rather than sound to produce images. It also helps to provide information about the optic nerve.


In this test, the ophthalmologist will look closely at your eye and examine it with the help of a special magnifying glass.

How is Diabetic Retinopathy Treated?

The treatment of this disease depends on several factors that include the severity of the condition and how it has responded to previous treatments.
In the early stages, the doctor will follow watchful waiting in which the person’s eye is monitored closely without intervening.

Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment

Maintaining blood sugar levels and controlling diabetes is very crucial and it can significantly slow down the development of this disease.
But in advanced stages, the person usually requires Diabetic Retinopathy treatment:
There are three ways to treat the disease:

Laser Treatment

Laser for Diabetic Retinopathy is used in a targeted manner to shrink blood vessels in the eye and seal the leaks from abnormal blood vessels. It is also known as scatter laser surgery and is generally used to treat proliferative retinopathy or macular edema.
The treatment may slow down or stop the leakage of blood and the build-up of fluid in the eye.
It is conducted by placing a medicine that numbs the eye and then aiming a strong beam of light (laser) into the eye using a special lens.
The person may feel uncomfortable due to the bright light and may experience blurry vision for the rest of the day. Small spots may also appear in the visual field for a few weeks after the laser treatment.  More than one session may be required for the patient.
This procedure involves certain risks, such as loss of peripheral vision, color vision, and night vision. The person should consult their doctor about the benefits and risks of this treatment.

Laser Treatment


Certain medicines can be injected into the eye to reduce swelling and minimize leakage from the blood vessels in the eyes.
To perform this treatment the doctor follows certain steps. The eye specialist will place medicine that numbs the eye, then he may clean the eye to help prevent infections and eventually inject the medicine into the eye. The medicine may slow down the growth of the abnormal vessels of the retina and may also treat macular edema.
Depending upon the severity of the condition people may need regular injections but with time they require injections less frequently.

Vitrectomy or Diabetic Retinopathy Surgery

A vitrectomy may benefit the person who has problems with the retina or vitreous. The procedure is conducted for the removal of some of the vitreous from the eye.
The eye surgeon may perform this procedure under general or monitored anesthesia.
It helps the surgeon to find and repair any sources of retinal bleeding by replacing cloudy vitreous or blood to improve vision.
The cloudy or bloody vitreous is replaced by a liquid or gas that is inserted by the surgeon into the eye. Subsequently, the body will absorb the liquid or gas with time and create new vitreous in its place.
The person may need to wear an eye patch for a day or so and use eye drops to reduce swelling and prevent the eyes from infections.
A person should be aware of the fact that Diabetic Retinopathy Surgery is not a cure, but it may slow down or stop the progression of symptoms. Diabetes is a chronic condition, and subsequent retinal damage and vision loss may occur in spite of treatment.

Prevention from Diabetic Retinopathy

The ways to prevent yourself from this harmful disease are not many, but the successful management of blood sugar levels may be very helpful.
Moreover, the early detection of symptoms makes the treatment more effective and optimal.
The blood sugar levels can be maintained in many ways such as eating a healthy and balanced diet, exercising regularly, keeping a moderate body weight, and scheduling regular health check-ups.
These conditions might worsen the normal functioning of the eye and may result in severe consequences. But, don’t worry if you have such conditions. At ASG Eye Hospitals, we take pride in providing the best solutions for eye care to people irrespective of their awareness, knowledge, and financial levels. The most optimal Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment at ASG encompasses state-of-the-art equipment and highly experienced doctors.


Glaucoma eye surgery is a procedure to reduce eye pressure and stabilize the vision to prevent loss of vision. An eye disease that damages the optic nerve is termed Glaucoma. The optic nerve is responsible for supplying visual information to the brain. The damage in the optic nerve is caused by the high pressure in the eye. Medications may be used in the earlier stages but Glaucoma surgery treatment is usually performed to restore vision.
 It may result in irreversible loss of the visual field and it is found that Glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 60. Other causes lead to optic nerve damage such as raised intraocular pressure (IOP) although it may occur with normal IOP (Normal-Tension Glaucoma) and even with low IOP (Low-Tension Glaucoma). The imbalance between the production and drainage of aqueous fluid in the eye’s anterior chamber raises Intraocular pressure (IOP).

Symptoms of Glaucoma: What can lead to Glaucoma surgery treatment

There are many symptoms of Glaucoma depending on the type. The most commonly diagnosed type is open-angle glaucoma. It barely has any signs or symptoms except gradual vision loss. For this reason, it is highly advised to visit your eye specialist or ophthalmologist regularly to prevent severe consequences.
On the other hand, there is acute-angle closure glaucoma, also called narrow-angle glaucoma, which is a medical emergency. See an eye specialist immediately if you experience the following symptoms:
  • Severe pain in the forehead or the eye
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Sudden vision disturbances in the eye
  • Redness of the eyes
  • Blind spots in the field of vision
  • Seeing halos or colored rings around lights
  • Blurred vision
  • Peripheral vision loss
In such cases, Glaucoma eye surgery is usually prescribed after diagnosis for treatment.


Everything you need to know about eye glaucoma surgical treatment

Glaucoma surgery prevents vision loss. This procedure is performed by creating a new opening for fluid to drain from the eye or, by implanting a shunt to help drain the fluid. Though the surgery can lower eye pressure and help stabilize vision for a very long time, the doctor will still need to monitor your glaucoma during that time. Generally, Glaucoma surgery is a safe and painless procedure, but it all depends on the type of procedure and the doctor’s expectations for eye pressure recovery.

Types of Glaucoma surgery:

Though the types of surgery to treat glaucoma are many, what to expect after the treatment will depend on the type of surgery:
  • Trabeculectomy: This surgery is carried out by creating a small surgical incision to help the fluid drain and decrease intraocular pressure.
  • Shunts or implants: These are surgically inserted into the eye. After done with it, the surgeries allow for the shunt or implant to replace the eye’s damaged draining that reduces the eye pressure.
  • Glaucoma valve treatment: It is one of the latest glaucoma treatment techniques that helps in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) and maintains a proper aqueous outflow. It is the most preferred management option in cases struggling with glaucoma even after maximal medications and in complicated cases of glaucoma.
  • Glaucoma Laser Surgery: In this procedure, the eye specialist puts a drop in your eyes to make it numb, aims a laser using a special lens into the eye and the laser helps drain fluid out of the eye. It is painless and hardly causes any discomfort. Most people can resume their normal daily activities the day after their laser treatment.


What should you expect after the surgery?

There may be some blurriness in the operating eye during the immediate recovery period. But as the days follow your vision will improve. Other side-effects may include:
  • Irritation
  • Redness
  • Tearing
  • Swelling
  • The feeling of a small object in the eye
There is no significant pain after Glaucoma surgery treatment but you’ll need to wear an eye shield, a bandage, or padding, to protect it from bumping or rubbing. Though, you need to consult your doctor if you experience major discomforts.

Glaucoma eye surgery recovery

It takes about a month to fully recover from the surgery but most shorter recovery times last to 3 weeks and longer recovery times extend to 6 weeks.
You will be following multiple appointments with your eye doctor to monitor the healing and to remove any cuts or stitches that were put at the time of surgery. You may need to use eye drops to prevent or reduce inflammation. The doctor will also review your glaucoma medications to make any changes in your prescription when you can resume taking them or how much should you take. Usually, the recovery process is safe with minor discomforts but if you experience the following symptoms you should get in touch with your doctor immediately as they could lead to infection:
  • Redness in the eye
  • Swelling
  • Additional pain in the eye
  • Pus or discharge from the eye
  • A shadow in the visual field
  • Decreasing vision
It is recommended not to drive a vehicle, rest, and follow what your doctor says. Don’t get too stressed as this surgery is entirely safe and is been around for decades.

Precautions after Glaucoma surgery treatment


To prevent your eyes from damage, avoid the following activities for the first few weeks of surgery:
  • Exercise, running, excessive exertion, or lifting heavyweights
  • Bending or straining
  • Rubbing or pressing your eyes
For safety against infections:
  • Swimming or using hot tubs
  • Wearing contaminated contact lenses
  • Applying face cream or makeup
Your eye specialist will ask to take some other precautions based on the type of surgery.

Risks of Glaucoma Surgery

The risks are few and can be prevented, though it is crucial to know about them:
  • Vision loss: You might experience disruptions in your vision after the surgery but they are temporary. Intensive permanent loss is not a common side effect.
  • Bleeding: As with any other operation, complications may occur. However, bleeding inside the eye is a serious complication, and you need to consult your doctor immediately in such circumstances.
  • Infection: There are numerous reasons for infections and they can even occur after weeks of surgery. The ophthalmologist prescribes you antibiotics to prevent these.
  • Low eye pressure: Sometimes surgeries can lead to low pressure in the eye, also called hypotony. It is most common after surgery. As a result of hypotony, you may experience side or peripheral vision.
  • Scarring: Rarely Eye Glaucoma surgeries may fail over time due to natural healing and scarring tendencies of the eye. Sometimes the scarring is so intense that the operation may fail to accomplish lowered pressure. You might need to restart your glaucoma medications in this case.
  • Cataract: Cataract formation can be accelerated by Glaucoma surgery. But it is not a cause of worry as cataracts are fairly easy to fix. Sometimes eye glaucoma surgeries are combined with cataract surgeries

Types of Glaucoma


Getting aware of the types of glaucoma before its prevention is essential:
  • Open-Angle (Chronic) Glaucoma: It is the most common type of glaucoma. There are signs and symptoms other than gradual vision loss. The loss may be so slow that the damage caused may be irreparable before any symptoms become apparent.
  • Angle-Closure (Acute) Glaucoma: In this case, the aqueous humor fluid is suddenly blocked and the rapid build-up of fluid may cause a quick, severe and painful increase in pressure. It is an emergency and you should consult your doctor immediately if you are experiencing symptoms such as nausea, pain, and blurred vision.
  • Congenital Glaucoma: This type of glaucoma usually runs in families. It slows down or prevents normal fluid drainage in children and causes angle defects in their eyes. The symptoms could be cloudy eyes, excessive tearing, or sensitivity to light.
  • Secondary glaucoma: It occurs mostly as a side-effect of an injury or another eye condition, such as eye tumours or cataracts.
  • Normal-Tension Glaucoma: In rare cases, people who do not have increased eye pressure develop damage to the optic nerve. Though the cause isn’t known, extreme sensitivity or a lack of blood flow to the optic nerve may be ascribed to normal-tension glaucoma.

Who is at risk of developing glaucoma?

  • Age: People above the age of 60 are at a higher risk to develop glaucoma and the risk increases with each passing year.
  • Eye problems: Thin corneas and chronic eye inflammation can lead to raised pressure in the eyes. Physical injury or trauma can also cause increased pressure in your eye.
  • Ethnicity: People of Asian descent have a higher tendency to develop glaucoma.
  • Families: Some types of glaucoma like open-angle glaucoma runs in families. If your grandparent, had it, you may be at a higher risk of developing this condition.
  • Medical history: People with heart disease, diabetes, or high blood pressure are at a higher risk of developing glaucoma.

Prevention against glaucoma

As of now, there are not any known ways to prevent glaucoma, but diagnosis in the early stages may prevent the eyes from severe or irreparable damage. Annual preventive care appointments with the ophthalmologist help to take necessary actions such as glaucoma eye surgery
These conditions might worsen the normal functioning of the eye and may result in severe consequences. But, don’t worry if you have such conditions. At ASG Eye Hospitals, we take pride in providing the best solutions for eye care to people irrespective of their awareness, knowledge and financial levels. The most optimal glaucoma eye surgery at ASG encompasses state-of-the-art equipment and highly experienced doctors.

Dr.Shilpi GangDr. Shilpi Gang
MBBS (Gold Medalist), MD (AIIMS, NEW DELHI), Fellow of Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, Glasgow, U.K.

Dr. Shilpi Gang is the co-founder and CEO of ASG EYE HOSPITALS. ASG Eye Hospital has a network of 44 eye Hospitals across 33 cities of India.


What is cataract surgery ? How do doctors rectify it ? 

Cataract seems to be a horrifying term but doctors usually recommend it when a person is unable to see clearly. It is categorized as an age-related disorder of the eye. An eye specialist recommends cataract surgery when the lens of the eye becomes cloudy and a person’s vision becomes blurry. The eye lens is situated behind the iris & pupil. It functions to help you focus on the objects of varying distances away from the affected person.
The white cloudiness on the lens happens because of the clumping of proteins. It forms a white opaque film on the eye lens and prevents the light from passing through and reaching the retina. it is impossible that this blurry vision can be corrected through medication or eyeglasses. Don’t get frightened as science has done such an advancement that is the easiest surgery that takes around 10-15 minutes to complete and the process is also not painful.
During cataract eye surgery, the team of cataract eye specialist doctors replaces the damaged eye lens with an artificial lens or intraocular lens to successfully restore clear vision. 


Why does a cataract develop ?

There are several reasons for the development of cataracts: 
  • Age factor: people who are older than 60 years of age are likely to be at risk.
  • Harmful UV rays: overexposure to the UV rays can also affect the vision and develops into a cataract.
  • Drugs effectuated: prolonged usage of steroids or prescription drugs may lead to cataract.
  • Blood sugar level/ diabetes: People who have diabetes are more likely to develop a cataract.
  • Eye injury: an eye injury can also cause cataracts or complete vision loss.
Don’t delay and go for the cataract surgery treatment if you experience the following signs:
  • Blurry vision.
  • Impaired night vision.
  • Double vision.
  • The colors seem to be faded.
  • Easily affected to glare & bright lights.
  • Halation around lights.
  • Rapid need to change eyeglasses.
Cataract usually develops as a person gets older and they may get worse gradually if you avoid the treatment. A cataract is recommended when it noticeably affects the vision. It causes trouble while doing daily errands like reading, driving, seeing anything in bright light.

Things to remember after cataract surgery :


After surgery, a person will be happy to see that vision has started to improve than before within a matter of a few days. But if you initially feel that vision is still somewhat blurry or wavy, don’t panic. It is normal, as sometimes the eyes take time to heal and adjust to the new vision. A brownish or yellow-tinted cataract makes the vision fade and the colors muted. The colors will appear to be brighter when the person sees through the new lens after the surgery.

Points to be noted at the recovery stage :


  • Stay in touch with your doctor. Follow-up is of utmost importance. After a day or two after the surgery, the doctor calls for follow-up, visits them as per schedule.
  • Doubtful about surgery, if your eyes feel itchy after surgery? Oh, don’t be! It is normal to feel a few mild discomforts.
  • Avoid touching the eye.
  • This will be a topical eye surgery with no injection, No stitches and No pain.
  • No eye patch is required after the surgery.
  • Doctors usually prescribe eye drops and some medications to prevent infection, reduce inflammation & control eye pressure. Take them on time.
  • Scratchiness, sensations, dry eyes, or itchiness will go away. In the majority of cases, the healing process gets completed within one weeks. In case you feel any of the following symptoms, contact your doctor immediately:
  1. Vision loss.
  2. Continuous pain.
  3. Increased redness in the eye.
  4. Light flashes.
  5. Multiple floaters in the line of vision.


  • Doctors suggest the person wear post-operative sunglasses for some time. It protects your eyes from sunlight & other bright lights till the time the eye recovers. The doctor will also let you know when to stop wearing glasses after a proper eye examination.
  • Do not attempt to drive until and unless you have visited your doctor and he or she confirms that you are safe to drive.
  • Avoid heavy lifting and back-breaking activities.
  • Don’t involve in any kind of activity that might cause stress to the eye during the healing process.
  • Keep your eyes closed while taking shower.
  • Avoid swimming or hot tubs for at least 2 weeks.
  • Stay away from any activity that will expose your eye to dust, grime, or any other infectious contaminants. 
Want to know the cost of surgery? The average cost of cataract surgery in India is usually between Rs. 12,000 to Rs. 1,25,000. However, the prices may vary depending upon the lens opted.


Dr.Shilpi GangDr. Shilpi Gang
MBBS (Gold Medalist), MD (AIIMS, NEW DELHI), Fellow of Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, Glasgow, U.K.


Dr. Shilpi Gang is the co-founder and CEO of ASG EYE HOSPITALS. ASG Eye Hospital has a network of 44 eye Hospitals across 33 cities of India.




Many of us wear eyeglasses or contact lenses to see clearly or to correct our vision. But sometimes people fail to take care of our eyes. Like going off to bed with specs on, or mistakenly splashing water on the face while wearing the lens. In both cases, you are at harm. To not have such bad experiences, you can look out for a permanent solution to your visibility problem, i.e. Lasik Eye Surgery


What is Lasik Eye Surgery?

In simple terms, Lasik surgery is undertaken to correct several eyesight conditions. A normal person can see everything. But people with nearsightedness or farsightedness cannot see the outside world’s images very clearly. It happens because outside world images don’t fall exactly on the retina, which thereby causes a refractive error. The light rays of the outside world do not get focused on the retina causing blurred images.
In a broader outlook, the outer layer of the eye is the cornea, and people’s cornea shape can be changed which leads to vision issues that call for Lasik Eye Surgery Treatment.
This surgery reshapes the cornea depending upon the vision condition that this particular treatment aims to fix. It corrects vision issues like nearsightedness & farsightedness.
The surgery doesn’t require much time. It takes nearly around 15 minutes and people remain awake during the whole procedure of the surgery. It is not painful. Right before going under the procedure, the surgeon will put numbing eye drops in both eyes. But you might experience a little pressure during the surgery.

Know the procedure of the surgery..

  1. Firstly, a mechanical surgical tool named microkeratome or a femtosecond laser is used to make a thin & circular flap in the cornea. The Lasik Specialist then folds back this turned flap to approach the underlying cornea (or stroma).
  2. Secondly, to bring back the cornea (corneal stroma) in shape, an excimer laser is used. This highly modernized laser tool uses a cool UV light beam to remove microscopic amounts of tissue from the cornea. The process reshapes the cornea accurately and the light now perfectly reaches the retina thereby enhancing improved and clear vision.
  3. At last, the corneal flap is placed back in place, where it adheres to the corneal stroma without stitches. 

Things to keep in mind after surgery:


  • After the surgery, the doctor will give you a brief post-op eye exam. Once the doctor/ eye specialist confirms that the surgery was successful, he or she will be discharged & allowed to go home.
  • The person cannot self drive the car or any other vehicle to home after discharge. He or she must be driven by a family member or a friend. He/ She is not allowed to drive until the doctor says after a follow-up visit. During the follow-up meets, the doctor will discuss & confirm that the vision is within the legal standard for driving.
  • The doctor will call after a week of the surgery to have a look at the healing process. At that visit, they will determine whether more follow-up visits are required or not.
  • Refrain from doing any heavy exercise for the week after surgery, as it can disturb the healing process.
  • Avoid wearing eye makeup for a week. When you resume, use new products to avoid any kind of infection. Doctors prescribe eye drops & artificial tears that help to speed up the healing process, fight against bacteria & infection and combat the eye from drying. 

When can a person expect the results of Lasik Eye Surgery?

The person undergoing the eye surgery can immediately see the result. He or she begins to see things from a distance that they were not able to see before. While a person may feel a little irritation & haziness initially, it will be stabilized and day by day it gets improved after surgery. It is common for eyes to feel a little powdery or dusty or sensitive to light. 


Doctors always ask the patients to keep their eyes closed for a few hours. After at least 6-7 hours, patients feel comparably comfortable with their vision. In some cases, patients may feel comfortable the very next day of surgery. However, this depends on the intensity of the patient’s eyesight before the eye surgery. 

Every surgery has some risks involved. With this surgery, you may struggle with the Dry eyes which can be handled through lubricating eye drops. 

Know some benefits: 

  • Don’t have to wear eyeglasses and contact lenses
  • Can undertake activities like sports comfortably after surgery.
  • Having whole comfort & convenience of not wearing corrective eyewear


Dr.Shilpi GangDr. Shilpi Gang
MBBS (Gold Medalist), MD (AIIMS, NEW DELHI), Fellow of Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, Glasgow, U.K.


Dr. Shilpi Gang is the co-founder and CEO of ASG EYE HOSPITALS. ASG Eye Hospital has a network of 44 eye Hospitals across 33 cities of India.


आँखों में दवाई डालने का सही तरीका

अधिकतर लोग समझते हैं कि आँखों में ड्रॉप डालना दवाई खाने जैसा होता है, लेकिन इसका एक तरीका होता है जिससे कि इसकी Active pharmacological Molecule सही मात्रा में आपके Target area तक, जिसको कि आँख का Anterior Chamber कहा जाता है वहां तक पहुँच पाता है।

आज हम आपको बताएंगे कि आई ड्रॉप डालने का सही तरीका क्या है –

अपनी नीचे वाली पलक को तर्जनी से नीचे की ओर खींचें ताकि Lower Lid एक थैली कि तरह बन जाए और उसमें एक बूँद जरूरत के हिसाब से ढालें, उसके बाद बस 3-4 सेकंड तक आँखें बंद रख कर खोल लें। लंबे समय तक आँख को बंद रखने की जरूरत नहीं है। बूँद डालते ही वो आँख कि कॉर्निया पर फैल जाती है और सोख जाती है। 2 अलग अलग आई ड्राप के बीच तीन – चार मिनट का अंतराल रखें, इसमें ज्यादा फर्क रखने की जरूरत नहीं है।

उपर की पलक खींच कर आय ड्रॉप कभी ना डाले थोड़ी प्रैक्टिस के बाद अपनी आई ड्रॉप आप खुद डाल पाएंगे, किसी की मदद की जरूरत नहीं रहेंगी

करने योग्य
1. हमेशा निचली पलक को खींचकर आई ड्रॉप लगाएं
2. आई ड्रॉप डालने से पहले अपने हाथ धोएं
3. आई ड्रॉप के नोजल को कभी न छुएं
4. बूंदों को फ्रिज के निचले डिब्बे में रखें

नहीं करें
1. ऊपरी पलक को खींचकर आई ड्रॉप नहीं डालें
2. आई ड्रॉप को गर्म स्थान पर नहीं रखें
3. आई ड्रॉप्स को फ्रीजर में नहीं रखें
4. नोजल खोलने के एक महीने बाद आई ड्रॉप का इस्तेमाल न करें

Dr. Shilpi Gang


Dr. Shilpi Gang




Amblyopia which is commonly known as Lazy eye is a condition when vision in one or both eyes is poorly developed. Typically, it just affects one eye. Bilateral amblyopia is also seen in few patients. It usually starts early in childhood.

Adults with this condition usually experience diminished vision that isn’t correctable with glasses or contact lenses. Ordinarily, the visual difficulty is because of how the brain treats input from the amblyopic eye. Rather than accurately recognising the visual inputs, the brain does not process them completely. While the eye may point inwards or outward, the actual misalignment of eye isn’t the source of the visual diminution.

Symptoms of Amblyopia

Manifestations of amblyopia range from abnormal positioning of one or both eyes or the two eyes may not appear to be cooperating giving a cross eyed appearance. An individual with amblyopia might squint or close one eye to accomplish some amount of visual sharpness. Head shifting while looking at anything is likewise another potential sign, alongside constant eye strain, eye weakness or migraines.

Common Causes of Amblyopia

One of the well-known reasons for amblyopia is strabismus, a condition where one eye is deviated, obstructing true alignment between the two eyes. One more possible source of lazy eye is anisometropia, where each eye has various degrees of spectacle power. Injury and mechanical blockage of vision (like a droopy eyelid) may likewise cause amblyopia.

The reason these conditions can lead to amblyopia is the difference in visual capacity of both eyes. If one eye is able to see clearly and the other isn’t, the brain suppresses the image that is coming from the weaker eye and depends on only stronger eye image.

Treatment for Amblyopia

Many individuals believe that amblyopia is just treatable in young age, frequently the people who are 12 years old or younger. However, this isn’t really the situation. While each case is unique, some adults can also get beneficial results from amblyopia therapy.

Usually only eye surgery or drops aren’t sufficient. While this might support the visual development of the amblyopic eye, the methodology isn’t ensured to bring about better binocular vision and depth perception. Without preparing to figure out how to consolidate visuals from the two eyes all the time, the general outcomes will in general be poor.

Fortunately, there are other treatment choices available to us. Optometric vision treatment can help patients by drawing in their eyes during exercises that require binocular vision thus incorporating and improving far, intermediate and near vision.

There isn’t in fact a full proof medical procedure to address amblyopia. In any case, if predisposing treatable condition is involved, like strabismus, timely correction of that condition might be helpful in improving vision.

In the event that someone has amblyopia and are looking for therapy choices, schedule an appointment at your closest ASG Hospital today. Our gifted group works perseveringly to guarantee your eye health and well being, performing careful tests to recognise any issues that might require treatment. We can plan treatment choices to meet your requirements, giving the most ideal result.

For the best management and treatment of Amblyopia, you can contact ASG Eye Hospital.

150+* Eye Specialists of All Sub Specialties of Ophthalmology out of which 50+* Trained from AIIMS, New Delhi I Presence over 33+* Cities across India I 40+* Super specialty Eye Hospital’s, Call – 18001200111


What is Contoura Vision?

Contoura Vision TopoGuided LASIK is a new technology designed to enhance the effects of LASIK. It corrects the vision based on the corneal topography (corneal curvature maps) as against the correction of vision in a standard LASIK surgery which is only based on glasses or contact lens prescription.
Contoura Vision TopoGuided LASIK involves the use of a separate diagnostic device called topolyser which provides measurement of 22,000 points on the cornea capturing the imperfections in both the curvature and the optics of the cornea. These topographic measurements are then combined with the patient’s eyeglass prescription and a customized treatment profile is created and programmed into the state of the art laser. The final laser ablation is performed by the WaveLight EX 500 Excimer laser system. Thus this technology works to optimize the corneal surface during LASIK procedure.

What makes Contoura Vision so unique?

The Topolyser has unparalleled diagnostic capabilities to record even the minutest imperfections in the curvature of the cornea. It provides an incredible measurement of 22,000 points as compared to the currently available wave front-guided LASIK that measures around 200 points. The topography measurements are so accurate that it is impossible for any two treatments to be the same. Hence this technology is remarkable as it corrects the refractive errors with higher precision than ever before.

How does it help?

Since Contoura Vision combines refractive prescription with corneal topography maps it provides improved quality of vision to the patients. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) results reveal that the patients who opted for this technology had a significant improvement and were able to see even more clearly without corrective eyewear. As per the clinical trials statistics, almost 99% of patients post-operatively saw as well or better without glasses than they ever did with glasses.

  • Specifically suitable for patients with Astigmatism > 1D
  • Decrease in difficulty during night driving
  • Lesser sensitivity towards light, less glare
  • Better quality of vision

How is it done?

  • Preparation
  • During Treatment
  • Post Treatment

A complete preoperative screening is done by clinical examination and corneal topography (Pentacam) to assess the eligibility and safety of LASIK procedure for the patient.

What are the benefits of this technology?

Contoura Vision technology is a boon for patients suffering from different refractive errors. It has many benefits, but a few risks too.


  • Reduced or absent dependence on glasses
  • Decrease in difficulty during night driving
  • Lesser sensitivity towards light, less glare
  • Better quality of vision

Let’s find out by comparing every significant aspect of a laser vision correction procedure.

For the best Contoura Vision Treatment, you can contact ASG Eye Hospital.

150+* Eye Specialists of All Sub Specialties of Ophthalmology out of which 50+* Trained from AIIMS, New Delhi I Presence over 31+* Cities across India I 38+* Super specialty Eye Hospital’s, Call – 18001200111 & 8875020326 & 7849903663


Glaucoma is the main source of permanent visual blindness around the world, and the second leading cause for permanent visual blindness in India. Almost three million individuals in India have glaucoma, and the number is expected to increase to 6.3 million in the following 30 years. In spite of the fact that glaucoma is more common in adults ageing 60 and above, it can happen at any stage in life. At present there is no definite cure for glaucoma, vision loss can be slowed down or stopped if the disease is diagnosed timely and treated early.

What is Glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a group of disorders that harm the optic nerve of the eye, which conveys visual signs from the retina to the cerebrum, permitting us to see. In glaucoma, the optic nerve is gradually impaired, causing progressive loss of vision and eventually permanent vision loss. Since the damage happens gradually it usually goes unrecognised until it is too late. As it advances, glaucoma can prompt to decreased quality of life, trouble with driving, increased risks of falls and diminished mobility.

Glaucoma is often linked to increased pressure in the eye. Healthy eyes produce a fluid known as aqueous, which courses through and exits the eye. In glaucoma, this cycle is disrupted, bringing about increased pressure in the eye which in turn causes harm to the optic nerve. The two main varieties of glaucoma — open-angle glaucoma and angle closure glaucoma — are determined by the structure of the drainage pathway in the front of the eye (known as the angle), through which aqueous fluid outflows.

In open-angle glaucoma, the angle seems open, however various elements — including drainage issues —results in poor pressure regulation. In this type of glaucoma optic nerve damage can happen at both high and normal eye pressures (normal tension glaucoma). Both subtypes can lead in vision loss and optic nerve damage.

In angle-closure glaucoma the angle is narrow, and the subsequent underlying issues can cause an abrupt closure of the drainage pathway, leading to high eye pressures. This condition is known as acute angle closure. Although uncommon, acute angle-closure glaucoma is an ophthalmological emergency, and requires immediate treatment with proper medication, laser, or surgery, as it can cause higher amount of optic nerve damage and can cause irreversible vision loss. Angle-closure glaucoma also exists in a chronic form where the increase in eye pressure occurs more slowly, often without symptoms, but still requires evaluation and treatment.

Who is at Risk of Developing Glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a perplexing disease, and while many associated genes have been identified, many underlying causes are still unclear.

However, a number of important risk factors have been identified, which include

  • Age older than 60
  • A first-degree relative with glaucoma
  • East and Southeast Asian descent (for angle-closure glaucoma)
  • History of eye trauma or multiple eye surgeries
  • Chronic eye conditions, such as diabetic eye disease
  • Highly near-sighted or far-sightedness •Use of steroid medications

What are the Symptoms of Glaucoma?

The population with glaucoma, especially those with open-angle glaucoma or normal-tension glaucoma, may have no or very minimal symptoms for quite a long time. It is shocking but half of the expected glaucoma cases are undiscovered, hence underlining the requirement for regular eye checkups, starting at age 40. An eye care professional will be able to detect the signs of glaucoma before you can, and timely medication and treatment is critical to forestall the disease from spreading and to prevent permanent vision loss.

Early indications of glaucoma incorporates trouble with low contrast, and some deficiency of fringe vision. In further developed stages, patients foster loss of their visual field, or blind spots, that at last lead to focal vision loss.

Acute angle-closure glaucoma causes symptoms of pain, blurred vision, and nausea, and is a medical emergency.

What Treatment Alternatives are Accessible?

In spite of the fact that there is as of now no permanent remedy for glaucoma, treatment can help slow or stop the speed of vision loss. Depending upon many elements, including your age and the sort and seriousness of your glaucoma, treatment may include medications and/or surgery directed at lowering eye pressure.

Medications include pressure-lowering eye drops that work to increase fluid drainage or decrease fluid production. Laser can also be used to increase drainage (in the angle) or to make an opening in the iris in case of angleclosure glaucoma. Various surgical techniques may be used to create an alternate fluid outflow pathway in the eye, so-called filtering surgery and tube-shunt surgery. Recent surgical innovations called minimally invasive glaucoma surgery, or MIGS, help in fluid drainage using microscopic-sized implants in the eye.

The future of Glaucoma Care

Researches in glaucoma are mostly focused on working on the reasons for the disease development and progression and foster more designated and customised medicines. There are various other subtypes of glaucoma, apart from the types portrayed here, that many believe will benefit from various medicines. Later on, hereditary testing might assume a part in assessing individual susceptibility for inheriting glaucoma over the long haul. Additionally, newer treatments to stop loss of nerve cells (of the retina and optic nerve), called neuroprotection, show guarantee. Analysts are now concentrating on new medications, drug conveyance frameworks, and advancements to make medical procedures more protected and compelling.

Early Discovery is Vital

In case you are stressed over glaucoma, and particularly if you have a family history of it then the best approach is to visit your eye specialist regularly. Every adult should have a standard eye examination at age 40, regardless of whether your vision is normal. Vision loss from glaucoma can be minimised with treatment, so early diagnosis and treatment of this disease is vital.

For the best Glaucoma Treatment, you can contact ASG Eye Hospital.

150+* Eye Specialists of All Sub Specialties of Ophthalmology out of which 50+* Trained from AIIMS, New Delhi I Presence over 31+* Cities across India I 38+* Super specialty Eye Hospital’s, Call – 18001200111


It is estimated that more than 30 million individuals in the India live with diabetes, and roughly 7.7 million of them have diabetic retinopathy, making it the most widely recognised reason for vision impairment in adults. The predominance of diabetic retinopathy has expanded essentially in the course of recent years, because of the ascent in the quantity of individuals determined to have diabetes.

How does Diabetes Influence the Retina?

The retina is the light-detecting part situated in rear of the eye. It consists of nerve cells (neurons), specific cells called photo receptors that are associated with directly detecting light and blood vessels. The ability of retina to detect the light requires energy, which is subject to the oxygen provided by blood flowing through the vessels.

In diabetes, increased glucose levels harm the vessels of the retina. These harmed vessels release fluid, leak blood and don’t provide sufficient oxygen to the retina, prompting retinal ischemia. Subsequently, retinal cells start to die and the retina doesn’t work as expected.

Moreover, diabetes additionally harms the neuron of the retina directly. Together, these impacts cause diabetic retinopathy.

Vision impairment related with diabetic retinopathy may at first influence focal vision because of a condition called diabetic macular edema. This fluid collection on the macula, a part of the retina responsible for sharp, focal vision, can prompt foggy vision and contortion of pictures.

Progressed diabetic retinopathy is described by the arrangement of sporadic vessels that can bleed inside the eye, causing a sudden loss of vision. This results in an abrupt, drape like vision impairment as blood collects within the eye. Further deterioration of advance diabetic retinopathy can prompt retinal detachment, which requires critical careful mediation and can bring about long-lasting, irreversible vision impairment if not expeditiously treated.

How Can You Forestall Diabetic Retinopathy?

The Indian Diabetes Association suggests that people with diabetes should keep their HbA1c level (a proportion of normal glucose levels over the past few months) beneath 7% to forestall the danger of complexities. As blood glucose straight forwardly harms retinal vessels, there is a solid epidemiological proof that glucose control means diminished occurrence and seriousness of diabetic retinopathy.

To lessen the cardiovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes, which incorporate retinopathy, nephropathy (kidney disease), and neuropathy (nerve damage), it is suggested that individuals should maintain a normal blood pressure. Pulse decrease can defer the beginning of diabetic retinopathy, yet it is unclear if controlling blood pressure can modify the direction of set up of diabetic retinopathy. Also, keeping the cholesterol-controlled helps in overall diabetes management, yet it isn’t evident whether doing so diminishes the danger of diabetic retinopathy.

How Can I Figure Out If I Have Diabetic Retinopathy?

An ophthalmologist can analyse and start to treat diabetic retinopathy before sight is affected. It is recommended that individuals with type 1 diabetes should see an ophthalmologist one time per year, starting five years after the diagnosis of diabetes. Individuals with type 2 diabetes should see an ophthalmologist for a retinal assessment before as early as possible after the diagnosis of diabetes, and afterward plan yearly tests. You might have to see an ophthalmologist all the more as often as possible in case you are pregnant or have further developed diabetic retinopathy.

What can I Do to Prevent or Slow Down Vision Loss if I have Diabetic Retinopathy?

As referenced above, harm to the vessels deprives the retina of oxygen. Deficiency of oxygen leads to creation of a signal protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Right now, there are medications that can bind VEGF and accordingly work on preventing the harmful effects of VEGF causing diabetic retinopathy. These “anti-VEGF” specialists are infused straightforwardly into the eye and can improve diabetic macular edema, and can even decrease the seriousness of diabetic retinopathy. In certain individuals, steroids infused straightforwardly into the eye may likewise improve diabetic macular edema. In some high-level instances of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (the most progressive type of diabetic retinopathy), patients might require retinal laser treatment or retinal medical procedure to stop or slow bleeding and spillage, to recoil harmed vessels and to eliminate blood and scar tissue helping in vision restoration.

Regular eye check ups and strict blood sugar level control are monumental in preventing the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy.

For the best Diabetic Retinopathy Hospital in India, you can contact ASG Eye Hospital.

150+* Eye Specialists of All Sub Specialties of Ophthalmology out of which 50+* Trained from AIIMS, New Delhi I Presence over 31+* Cities across India I 38+* Super specialty Eye Hospital’s, Call – 18001200111