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Certainly, let’s dive into the detailed structure of the human eye:

 

Outer Structure of An Eye

 

Eyelids and Eyelashes: Protect the eye from foreign objects and excessive light, and help distribute tears to keep the eye moist.

Tear Glands: Produce tears, which lubricate the eye, keep it clean, and help protect against infections.

Cornea: The transparent, dome-shaped front surface of the eye that refracts (bends) light and helps focus it onto the retina.

Sclera: The tough, white outer layer of the eye that provides structural support and protection. The front portion of the sclera is covered by the transparent cornea.

Iris: The Coloured  part of the eye that surrounds the pupil. The iris controls the size of the pupil and therefore regulates the amount of light that enters the eye.

Aqueous Humor: A clear fluid produced by the ciliary body that fills the space between the cornea and the lens. It helps maintain the shape of the front of the eye and provides nutrients to the cornea and lens.

Vitreous Humor: A gel-like substance that fills the larger space between the lens and the retina. It helps maintain the shape of the eyeball and transmit light to the retina.

 

Inner Structure of An Eye

 

Macula: A small, specialized area at the center of the retina, containing a high concentration of cones. It is responsible for central vision and detailed visual acuity.

Fovea: A tiny depression at the center of the macula. It contains the highest concentration of cones and is responsible for the sharpest vision.

Optic Nerve: A bundle of nerve fibers that carries electrical signals from the retina to the brain, allowing us to perceive visual information.

Optic Disc (Blind Spot): The point on the retina where the optic nerve exits the eye. It lacks photoreceptors, so it’s not sensitive to light and creates a small blind spot in our field of vision.

Choroid: A layer of blood vessels located between the retina and the sclera. It supplies oxygen and nutrients to the outer layers of the retina.

Conjunctiva: A thin, transparent membrane covering the white part of the eye (sclera) and the inner surface of the eyelids. It helps keep the eye moist.

Pupil: The circular, black opening in the centre of the iris. It adjusts its size in response to varying light conditions to control the amount of light entering the eye.

Lens: A transparent, flexible structure located behind the iris. The lens further focuses light onto the retina by changing its shape through a process called accommodation.

Ciliary Body: A ring-shaped structure located just behind the iris. It contains ciliary muscles that control the shape of the lens and produce aqueous humor.

The human eye is a marvel of biological engineering, with each of these structures playing a crucial role in the process of vision.

 

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Written and Verified by:

DR. SHILPI GANG

DR. SHILPI GANG

MBBS (GOLD MEDALIST), MD (AIIMS, NEW DELHI), FRCS (ENGLAND), FELLOW OF ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS, GLASGOW, U.K.

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