Glaucoma is the main source of permanent visual blindness around the world, and the second leading cause for permanent visual blindness in India. Nearly three million individuals in India currently have this condition, and experts predict this number to rise to 6.3 million over the next 30 years.
In spite of the fact that glaucoma is more common in adults ageing 60 and above, it can happen at any stage in life. Currently, glaucoma lacks a definitive cure, but timely diagnosis and early treatment can slow or halt vision loss.
This eye condition is a group of disorders that harm the optic nerve of the eye, which conveys visual signs from the retina to the cerebrum, permitting us to see. It is gradually impairs the optic nerve, leading to progressive vision loss and eventual permanent blindness. Since the damage happens gradually it usually goes unrecognized until it is too late. As it advances, can prompt to decreased quality of life, trouble with driving, increased risks of falls and diminished mobility.
Increased eye pressure often links to glaucoma. Healthy eyes produce a fluid known as aqueous, which courses through and exits the eye. In this condition, disruption of this cycle results in elevated eye pressure, leading to optic nerve damage. The structure of the drainage pathway at the front of the eye (referred to as the angle) determines the two main types: open-angle and angle closure glaucoma, influencing the outflow of aqueous fluid.
In open-angle glaucoma, the angle seems open, however various elements — including drainage issues —results in poor pressure regulation. In this type of glaucoma optic nerve damage can happen at both high and normal eye pressures (normal tension glaucoma). Both subtypes can lead in vision loss and optic nerve damage.
In angle-closure glaucoma the angle is narrow, and the subsequent underlying issues can cause an abrupt closure of the drainage pathway, leading to high eye pressures. Doctors term this condition “acute angle closure“. Although uncommon, acute angle-closure glaucoma is an ophthalmological emergency, and requires immediate treatment with proper medication, laser, or surgery, as it can cause higher amount of optic nerve damage and can cause irreversible vision loss. It is also exists in a chronic form where the increase in eye pressure occurs more slowly, often without symptoms, but still requires evaluation and treatment.
The population with it, especially those with open-angle glaucoma or normal-tension glaucoma, may have no or very minimal symptoms for quite a long time. Shocking as it may be, half of the anticipated cases remain undetected, highlighting the need for regular eye checkups, beginning at age 40. An eye care professional will be able to detect the signs of glaucoma before you can, and timely medication and treatment is critical to forestall the disease from spreading and to prevent permanent vision loss.
Early indications of glaucoma incorporates trouble with low contrast, and some deficiency of fringe vision. In further developed stages, patients foster loss of their visual field. Or blind spots, that at last lead to focal vision loss.
Acute angle-closure glaucoma causes symptoms of pain, blurred vision, and nausea, and is a medical emergency.
In spite of the fact that there as of now no permanent remedy for this disease. Treatment can help slow or stop the speed of vision loss. Depending upon many elements, including your age and the sort and seriousness of your glaucoma. Treatment may include medications and/or surgery directed at lowering eye pressure.
Medications include pressure-lowering eye drops that work to increase fluid drainage or decrease fluid production. Laser can also be used to increase drainage (in the angle), or to make an opening in the iris. In case of angle closure glaucoma. Various surgical techniques may be used to create an alternate fluid outflow pathway in the eye. So-called filtering surgery and tube-shunt surgery. Recent surgical innovations called MIGS, help in fluid drainage using microscopic-sized implants in the eye.
The focus of research is on the causes of disease and custom medications. Different drugs may be used to treat different types of glaucoma. Later on, hereditary testing might assume a part in assessing individual susceptibility for inheriting glaucoma over the long haul. Additionally, newer treatments to stop loss of nerve cells (the retina and optic nerve), called neuroprotection, show guarantee. Analysts are now concentrating on new medications, drug conveyance frameworks, and advancements to make medical procedures more protected and compelling.
Visit your eye specialist regularly if you’re stressed about group of eye diseases, and especially if you have a family history of it. Every adult should have a standard eye examination at age 40, regardless of whether your vision is normal. Vision loss can be minimized with treatment from this eye condition, so early diagnosis and treatment of this disease is vital.
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